There are various tools to measure and check connectivity of your dedicated server and virtual private server. Below we will give an overview over the most common ones, along with their most widespread use.
ping is probably the most well known tool to check whether a server is up or not. A ping is a small packet of traffic sent from the originating machine to the destination machine which expects a so called echo reply to see whether the destination host is up and running and responding. The typical Linux syntax is:
ping [-c INTEGER] [-n] [-q] HOSTNAME | IP address
with -c followed by the number of packets to send, -n for numeric (IP address only – no dns resolution), and -q for quiet output so that only the summary lines will be displayed. The output will display how long it takes for each packet (or the packets on average) to travel back and forth between the source and destination host (round trip time). Large deviations in the min/avg/max values may indicate network congestion, whereas significant packet loss may indicate general network outages or congestion to a point where the network is simply too overloaded to allow anything else through and just drop packets instead. A 100% packet loss may, however, not necessarily indicate that the destination host is dead – it may simply be that the destination server is blocking ICMP ping packets via its firewall.
traceroute is another useful tool that displays the route packets take from the originating host to the destination machine. It also displays round trip times, and can be used to identify potential issues on the way to the machine as well. It is important to understand that firewalls and routers are able to filter and deny these probing packets as well, so a non responding host may not necessarily be down, just as with ping. The typical Linux syntax is
traceroute [-n] HOST | IP address
mtr can be seen as the combination of ping and traceroute – it displays not only the way packets travel down the line from the source to the destination, but also displays min/avg/max round trip statistics and packet loss. mtr is very helpful in determining network congestions or anomalies. The typical Linux syntax is
mtr [-n] HOST | IP address
When would you typically use these tools:
- when a host that is normally up can suddenly no longer be reached;
- when you notice anomalies like slow network, packet loss, etc.;
- when you want to prove that things are working OK on your end;